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A tire is made up of several different components.
Tire Tyre

The Tread is made from a mixture of many different kinds of natural and synthetic rubbers. The tire tread provides the gripping action and traction that prevent your vehicle from slipping or sliding, especially when the road is wet or icy.

In general, tires are not safe and should be replaced when the tread is worn down to 1/16 of an inch. One easy method for checking tread depth is to place a penny in the tread with Lincoln's head upside down and facing you. If you can see the top of Lincoln's head, you are ready for new tires. The tire tread is made up of the rib, tread block, groves, sipes and shoulder.

The sidewall provides lateral stability for the tire, protects the body plies and helps keep the air from escaping. Sidewalls also contain additional components to help increase the lateral stability of the tire.

Cap Plies are an extra layer or two of polyester fabric to help hold everything in place. These cap plies are not found on all car and truck tires. They are mostly used on tires with higher speed ratings to help all the components stay in place at high speeds.

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Steel Belted radial tires have belts made from steel that are used to reinforce the area under the tread. These belts provide puncture resistance and help your car tire stay flat so that it makes the best contact with the road.

Radial Plies is made up of several layers of different fabrics. The most common ply fabric is polyester cord. The cords in a radial tire run perpendicular to the tread. Some older tires used diagonal bias tires, tires in which the fabric ran at an angle to the tread. The plies are coated with rubber to help them bond with the other components and to seal in the air.

Bead Bundle or Bead Chaffers and Bead is a loop of high-strength steel cable coated with rubber. It gives the tire the strength it needs to stay seated on the wheel rim and to handle the forces applied by tire mounting machines when the tires are installed on rims.

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Tire manufacturing is a complex process, starting with the raw materials which pass through several processes to arrive at the finished tire. Rubber is the best known material in tires. The term rubber describes the physical properties of the material, rather than its chemical composition.

All of the above components are assembled in a tire making machine. This machine ensures that all of the components are in the correct location and then forms the tire into a shape and size fairly close to its finished dimensions.

After the tire has all of its components, it's not held together very tightly, and it doesn't have any markings or tread patterns. The next step in the assembly is to run the tire into a curing machine, which functions something like a waffle iron, molding in all of the markings and traction patterns. The heat bonds all of the tire's components together. This process is called vulcanizing. Auto Tire Ratings.

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